Lockhart, James; Altman, Ida, eds. Despite their late creation, these intendancies so affected the formation of regional identity that they became the basis for the nations of Central America and the first Mexican states after independence. At first, conversion seemed to be happening rapidly. Los Angeles, CA: ucla Latin American 1 maint: Uses editors parameter ( link ) Israel, Jonathan. The crown created two new provincial governments from the former Las Californias in 1804; the southern peninsula became Baja California, and the ill-defined northern mainland frontier area became Alta California. The rich, color-fast red dye
produced from insects, was harvested from nopal cacti. Management by the Audiencia, which was expected to make executive decisions as a body, proved unwieldy. (Stanford University Press 1964).
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one new office that could be staffed with peninsulares, but throughout the 18th century significant gains were made in the numbers of governors-captain generals, audiencia judges and bishops, in addition to other posts, who were Spanish-born. Gainesville: University of Florida Press 1957. 55 The north-south Acapulco route remained a mule track through mountainous terrain. Mexico City, established on the ancient Mexico-Tenochtitlan. From 1687, Father Eusebio Francisco Kino, with funding from the Marqués de Villapuente, founded over twenty missions in the Sonoran Desert (in present-day Sonora and Arizona). If there had been significant mineral wealth in Puebla, it could have been even more prominent a center for New Spain, but its first century established its importance. Many tumbled with their cargo to their deaths. However, where labor was more abundant or market conditions depressed, estate owners paid lower wages. North of Mexico City, the city of Querétaro was founded (ca. They were first introduced on a large scale in New Spain, by the Minister of the Indies José de Gálvez, in the 1770s, who originally envisioned that they would replace the viceregal system (viceroyalty) altogether. 79 Philip Wayne Powell, Soldiers, Indians, and Silver: The Northward Advance of New Spain. The Spanish Empire in America. Missions and the Northern Frontier edit The town of Albuquerque (present day Albuquerque, New Mexico ) was founded in 1706. The upper echelons of government were staffed by Spaniards born in Spain ( peninsulares the middle and lower levels of government and other higher paying jobs were held by Criollos (Criollos were Spaniards born in the Americas, oras permitted by the casta systemSpaniards with some. The role of interracial mixing edit Main article: Casta Español and Mulata with their Morisco children. Puebla's Spanish town council (cabildo) had considerable autonomy and was not dominated by encomenderos. The construction was done despite protests from some Indian villages when the infrastructure improvements, which sometimes included rerouting the road through communal lands. The Spanish Frontier in North America. Civil architecture included the viceregal palace, now the National Palace, and the Mexico City town council ( cabildo both located on the main square in the capital. "Economic and Institutional Trajectories in Nineteenth-Century Latin America". 58 Many Spanish merchants preferred living in the pleasant highland town of Jalapa (1,500 m).